ESD Systems’ ESD Technical Newsletter
Issue 11, November 1999: Volume 2
Sender : ESD Systems, 19 Brigham Street, # 9, Marlboro, MA 01752-3170
Phone : 508-485-7390
Fax : 508-480-0257
E-mail : email@example.com
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This is a free monthly newsletter, which specializes on issues in static control in the semiconductor/electronics workplace.
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IN THIS ISSUE:
· HOT TIP of the MONTH (ESD Control Program)
· ESDA NE Chapter's General Meeting (ANSI/ESD S20.20)
· ESD Q&A CORNER (ESD Control and Cost Savings)
· PRODUCT UPDATES (Eliminator Jr. H/O Ionizer)
· Dr. ZAP (ESD Control & (HUGE) Cost Savings)
HOT TIP of the MONTH (ESD Control Program)
One of the main reasons companies deploy an ESD Control program is to save money. Increased throughput and decreased scrap can yield a ROI (Return On Investment) of up to 1000% per year for successfully deploying an ESD Control program. A secondary reason is to comply with their customers’ demands and ISO 9000 programs. Whatever reason, setting up and implementing an ESD Control program will almost always pay for itself within the first year. A way to ensure that your program is performing is to perform regular ESD audits. An ESD Audit is an essential part of a good ESD control program. This checks all ESD control practices and products, provides a constant reminder to personnel of their responsibilities, and gives management the necessary feedback for any corrective action.
ESDA NE Chapter's General Meeting
January 12th, 2000
Date: Wednesday, January 12th
Time: Registration 4:30, Seminar 5:00 - 6:30 PM
Location: Hawthorn Room, HP, 39 Mall Road (across from the Lahey Clinic), Burlington, MA 01805
Topic: ANSI/ESD S20.20-1999
Speaker: David Swenson, President of the ESD Association
The ANSI/ESD S20.20 is the parent document for all ESDA standards (except packaging) and will be the main reference for Auditing an ESD Control program. As the parent document, all the constraints for various control devices, systems and procedures are housed in this standard for easy reference. This will become a key auditing tool for ESD Control. The ANSI/ESD S20.20 may replace both the MIL-STD-1686 and the ANSI/EIA-625 ESD Control Standards.
For more information on this General Meeting, contact the Northeast Chapter of the ESD Association, P.O. Box 394, Wilmington, MA 01887. Phone: 508-485-7390; Fax: 508-480-0257; e-mail: email@example.com Web Site: http://www.nechapteresda.org/
ESD Q&A CORNER
The following questions and answers were selected from our FAQ WEB Page: http://www.esdsystems.com/default.asp?PageNo=QANDAINDEX concerning Questions about ESD Control and Cost Savings.
Q1: Do you have any industry averages of how much (time and money) ESD damaged components cost the industry per year? - Anonymous, Dallas, TX.
A1: One estimate published in our 07/96 Catalog states that the estimated costs of ESD damage to electronic based equipment run as high as $5 billion annually.
Q2: It is sometime mentioned that ESD are cumulative in effect, i.e., some minor discharge may not break down the device/junction..but create leakages. Then, several of these "minor" discharges are able to create catastrophic defect. What is the point ? Does it exist some papers on this subject? - Anonymous, Toulouse, France
A2: The point is that ESD can degrade or shorten the life span of any electronic product, which can in turn increase the warranty and repair costs and decrease customer satisfaction with your products. This is a big quality issue and can save companies 100s of 1,000s of dollars a year in defects, returns, scrap, repairs, etc.
Ted Dangelmayer of Lucent Technologies has a new book out that shows a graph of the relative cost benefit to compliance to an ESD program on the front cover. For example, Lucent Technologies’ manufacturing suffered losses estimated to be in excess of $325 million per year before instituting ESD controls.
There are a plethora of technical papers on this subject within the collection of EOS/ESD Symposium Proceedings which can be obtained directly from the ESD Association in Rome, New York at:
7900 Turin Road
Building 3, Suite 2
Rome, NY 13440-2069
Phone: (315) 339-6937
Fax: (315) 339-6793
PRODUCT UPDATES (NEW!)
ELIMINATOR JR. HIGH OUTPUT PERSONAL IONIZER – Item #s 43161 - 43163
New Removable Emitter Cassette Makes Cleaning a Breeze
• High output, self-contained, auto-balancing bench top ionizer
• Emitter cassette* slides out easily for cleaning and replacement
• Portable - ideal for field service technicians
• Swivel base makes unit easy to reposition
• Adjustable air flow for added flexibility 60-77 CFM maximum
• Ozone output less than 0.05 PPM
• “Clean-Me” indicator flashes when cleaning is needed, with switchable audio alarm
• Non-nuclear design for added safety
• Includes banana jack grounding point
Topic: ESD Control, ROI (Return On Investment): ESD CONTROL & (HUGE) COST SAVINGS
topic gleaned from paper: http://www.esdsystems.com/WHITEPAPERS/wp_esdcontrolroi.asp
ESD Control programs are an essential part of a quality process and are always needed when handling ESD sensitive electronic/semiconductor devices. The extent of the ESD Control program is determined by the ESD Sensitive (ESDS) devices themselves and how they are handled. Refer to article “How to Set Up an ESD Control Program”  for additional information.
One of the main reasons that companies deploy ESD Control programs is to save money. Increased throughput and decreased scrap can yield a Return On Investment (ROI ) of up to 1,000% per . A secondary reason is to comply with their customers’ and ISO 9000 type programs’ requirements. Whatever reason, setting up and implementing an ESD Control program will almost always produce favorable financial results.
II Cost Reduction via ESD Control Programs
Having ESD awareness and following through with an ESD Control program is essential in reducing quality failures due to ESD. ESD can affect product reliability with catastrophic damage which is readily apparent to latent degradation. Latent degradation is particularly expensive requiring costly inspection and rework cycles in-house or product failure in the field. Maintaining good ESD controls will improve product throughput or yield, increasing reliability in the field which improves customer satisfaction leading to increased future business.
One test equipment manufacturer noted that GMR heads were being damaged during or after testing. These heads are extremely sensitive to ESD, and require additional handling precautions.
It is very important when designing and implementing an ESD Control program to know the ESD susceptibility of the ESD Sensitive (ESDS) devices you are trying to protect. Classification of these devices should include all simulation models human body model (HBM), Machine Mode (MM), and Charged-device Model (CDM) that will properly characterize the devices' sensitivity when handled at various locations within the facility . This will allow for the most economical program design.
Gene Chase, an ESD Consultant with ETS Inc., is quoted as saying “Millions of dollars are lost every year due to ESD . Many of these incidents occur within the computer and communications industry.” Examples of losses from ESD may be any of the following:
To properly determine the return on investment (ROI) from your ESD Control program, you must collect return, repair and scrap cost data before and after implementation.
Terry O’Malley, former
AT&T ESD Manager, had collected data from several AT&T facilities both
before and after instituting an ESD Control program. The data speaks for itself; see figure 1 for a graph of two
facilities that were monitored. There
was over a 50% savings in return and repair costs found at both facilities
after initiating their ESD Control programs
Figure 2 (found on our web site: http://www.esdsystems.com/whitepapers/wp_esdcontrolroi.asp) abstractly represents the relative cost benefits of Lucent’s ESD Control program with the relative compliance to this program . A typical return on investment (ROI) for a strict ESD Control program, like that used at Lucent Technologies, is typically 1,000 %. The design of the ESD Control program should be well thought out to minimize unnecessary costs in the program, but with this knowledge, major quality and reliability failures have been known to cost up to $10 million dollars each and jeopardize sales.
Protecting an ESDS device at all but one of the workstations is not acceptable. For the ESD Control program to be effective, it must be comprehensive and followed with discipline throughout the manufacturing, transport, and storage cycle. Management commitment is an important element of any effective ESD Control Program. ESD damage is not simple or inexpensive to identify. To improve quality and profits, management should be involved. Over 21% of failure analysis is due to electronics and industry studies showing that 30% of all electronic failures can be attributed to ESD.
Major companies including AT&T, Motorola, Hewlett Packard and IBM have been able to successfully track ESD damage cost and the resulting benefits of their ESD Control Programs. These companies have determined that ESD Control is an essential part of their success, one that results in significant investment pay-back, refer to Figure 1 (found on our web site: http://www.esdsystems.com/whitepapers/wp_esdcontrolroi.asp).
Even with an ESD Control program in place, a typical electronics company may lose 5% of revenue from all causes of product failure. Cost avoidance is the biggest issue when it comes to implementing an ESD Control program. Another source  states that a typical pay-back on an ESD control program is 95:1. For every one-dollar invested in ESD control, ninety-five dollars comes back as money saved .
Difference in component sensitivity between through-hole and surface mount devices is dependent on the architecture and technology packaged. Typically, surface mount devices have much smaller architecture making them more susceptible to ESD than through-hole packaged devices. The width of the circuitry conductors is as small as 0.10 micrometer (equal to 0.0001millimeter or 0.000004 inch). To pack more and more circuitry into small packages, the spacing isolating circuitry has been reduced and can be as little as 300 mm. A human being cannot feel ESD voltage until it reaches approximately 3,000 volts. A discharge of static electricity is literally a little lighting bolt, producing heat that can easily burn through microelectronic architecture some rated with a withstand voltage as low as volts.
For IC packaging, the Input/Output (I/O) count has
climbed from 600 to 1,000 to well over this now. This implies that the spacing between the I/Os have decreased
dramatically and where wire bonding is used, the air gap becomes that much
smaller making the neighboring I/Os even more susceptible to ESD. This can be seen as Ball Grid Array (BGA)
chips have been replacing through-hole pin chip technology
The increasing sophistication of electronic devices has continued to make electronic devices more and more susceptible to ESD related damage. This is a trend that is expected to continue.
Dry areas further add to the susceptibility of ESD Sensitive (ESDS) devices. Table II shows normal activity within a production facility where triboelectric charging levels of operators and objects are given in voltages and shown to be dependent on relative humidity (RH). There can be over a 5 time increase in charge generation when the RH drops to 10%.
There are a slew of other factors that can add to the
problems that need to be countered by a well designed ESD Control program, such
as: employee knowledge with training; ESD Control products designed to protect
the corresponding ESDS devices; program funding with management buy-in; employee compliance with internal discipline
and audits, etc.
A properly designed and successfully deployed ESD Control program is a proven money saver with an ROI of up to 1,000% per year. Another source reports that for every one-dollar invested in ESD control, ninety-five dollars comes back as money saved. Have you hugged your ESD Coordinator recently?
(References found on our web site: http://www.esdsystems.com/whitepapers/wp_esdcontrolroi.asp)
This is a free monthly newsletter, which specializes on issues in static control in the semiconductor/electronics workplace.
Need your own copy? Want to subscribe to this Newsletter? All you or your colleague(s) need to do is simply fill out the subscription form at http://www.esdsystems.com/forms/esdmail.asp
This Newsletter is never sent unsolicited. To unsubscribe from this mailing, send an e-mail to ESD_Corner@esdsystems.com and put " UNSUBSCRIBE ESD_Newsletters" in the subject.
Let us know what you think. Tell us what you would like to see in future issues. Want to contribute articles or other related information to our Newsletter? Send your comments to the firstname.lastname@example.org
Copyright © Desco Industries, Inc. 1999